This is the first literal, word-for-word translation of Wagner’s epic masterwork with the full German text. Stewart Spencer’s version is at once reliable and readable, adhering closely to the original verse form and to Wagner’s poetic intentions. The German text is given in parallel, and Spencer also contributes illuminating footnote and an introductory essay. Other specially commissioned essays discuss the Cycle’s musical structure, its philosophical implications, its medieval sources and Wagner’s own changing attitude to its meaning. An appendix of Wagner’s rejected versions, copious notes on the translation, a glossary of the names of characters in the Ring, an extensive bibliography and reviews of CD- and video-recordings conclude the volume.